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General informations - Timisoara

General informations Informaţii generale
Short history of the city Timişoara
The first documentary attestation of the locality Timişoara is fairly controversial, because the specialists place it in 1212 or 1266. In 1175 they mentioned the Timiş County, but the sources did not mention its economic and administrative centre.
Known as Stronghold - Castrum Temesiene - situated at the crossing of the trading and military roads, it became the main target of the dispute between the Turks and the Austrians, and then it was coveted by the Hungarian bourgeoisie and aristocracy - Timişoara developed around the fortified nucleus, from the 18th century. Between 1315-1323
King Carol Robert of Anjou established in the Timişoara Stronghold the royal residence.
The colonization of Banat made from Timişoara a real multicultural and multi-confessional centre. The building of the shipping canal of Bega gave a powerful rate to its economic and trading development. The town underwent an unprecedented thriving period, attaining to get the name of “Small Vienna”, as the recognition of its importance and beauty.
In 1919 the Banat united with Romania, and in Timişoara they set up for the first time the Romanian administration. The Soviet post-war occupation marks the beginning of the communist period that ended in 1989 with the Anticommunist revolution: revolution that started just from the town of Bega.
The Municipality of Timişoara is located at the intersection of 45°47' North latitude and the meridian of 21°17'' East longitude, being placed, as mathematical position, in the Northern hemisphere, at almost equal distance form the North Pole and the equator, and in the Eastern hemisphere, in the Central-European time-zone.
130.5 km²
317 660 inhabitants
Looking on the whole, on the relief of Timişoara's zone can be observed the monotony and plainness of the surface of lowlands, being interrupted only by the slightly sunk bed of the Bega river (artificially realized, through canalization). But in details, the relief of the town and its surroundings represent a series of local particularities, expressed altimetric through moderate unevennesses, which do not exceed anywhere 2-3 m. In the centre of the city Timişoara the highest altitude is situated in the North-Eastern part, in the "Între Vii" district, at 95 m, and the lowest point at 84 m, in the Western part of the Mehala (Ronat) district.
The annual average temperature measures around +11 degrees C, the hottest month being July with 21.6 degrees C, and the coldest month is January with -1.2 degrees C. Concerning the precipitations there can be observed that the Mediterranean influences, the yearly average reaching to 630-640 mm.
Timişoara is situated in the South-Eastern part of the Pannonian Plain, in the winding zone of Timiş and Bega rivers.
Natural reservations:
Bazos Park: the Bazos park is situated at 15 km SE from Timişoara, formed from a real reservation and the zone around the it. The reservation comprises the Big Park, the American Park, a greenhouse and a seed bed for exotic plants. This gathers over 400 exotic shrub species from 5 continents.
The Swamps from Satchinez: the complex of swamps is situated at 25 km from Timişoara, in the Banat Plain and it occupies 40 hectares. The reservation gathers about 25% of Romania's water bird species, some of them nearly extinct. Among the rare species we can mention the: little egret, purple heron, squacco heron, etc.
Fossil Location of Rădămăneşti: in the Lipova Plateau, at 10 km from Lugoj there is a geological reservation the "Fossil Location of Rădămăneşti" with a rich fossil fauna. It was discovered in 1870 by the scientist T. Fuchus, who identified about 52 mollusc species. The protected zone was the object of a monograph written in 1971 by G. Gillet and Fl. Marinescu.
Historical and Architectural Monuments:
The Stronghold  
The Stronghold - known as the Stronghold, the ruins of the Timişoara Stronghold remind us to the fortifications of the 18th century. Nowadays it hosts the Folkloric Art Museum that exhibits traditional costumes, wood-carvings, folkloric ceramics, religious glass paintings, etc.
The Stronghold of Timişoara
Built during the 18th century, it had three gates: Transylvanian Gate, Viennese Gate and  Petrovaradin Gate.  
The Huniad's Castle
Built by Iancu de Hunedoara during 1443-1447, on the site of the old castle, built previously by Carol of Anjou. Today the castle exhibits the collections of the Museum of Banat.
The Metropolitan Cathedral
Erected during 1936-1946 according to the plans of architect Ion Trăiănescu. The place has been consecrated in 1947, in the presence of King Mihai I. The building was constructed in Byzantine style, measuring 63 m in length and 32 m in width. The main tower and the dome measure 83 m and 16 m in height. Is underground floor hosts a museum, where are exhibited different Orthodox cult objects.
The National Romanian Theatre and Opera House
They were built according to the plans of the Viennese architects Fellner and Hellmer, during 1872-1875, in the Renaissance style.
The Roman-Catholic Church "Holy Heart of Jesus"
It was built in Neogothic style, according to the plans of architect Karl Salkovics.
St. Catherine Church
Raised in 1775, reconstructed in 1889 in Neobaroque style, it belonged to the Franciscan Order.
The Millenium Church  
It was built according to the plans of architect Ludwig von Ybl, in order to commemorate 1000 years since the Hungarians settled in the Panonian Plain.
The Dicasterial Palace
Built in the Italian Renaissance style during 1850-1854 after the Strozzi Palace from Florence.
Tourist Objectives:
Timişoara Stronghold
The Old Synagogue in Fabric
The Roman-Catholic Church
The Huniad's Castle  
The House of the Prince Eugeniu of Savoia  
The Stronghold Synagogue  
The House of the Count of Mercy  
The Franciscan Monastery  
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