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General informations - Arad

General informations
Short history of the city of Arad
Arad was first recorded in documents in 1068.
The old Dacian fortress belonged to Burebista's state, and implicitly to the kingdom of Decebal, dating back to the 4th Century B.C., and after 106 it was occupied by Romans.  The Kingdom of Hungary extends its supremacy to Arad in the 11th Century. Arad is attested as a town in 1329. The Ottomans have seized the town in 1552. Its only period of independence was under Mihai Viteazul (1595-1615).
In the year 1687 Arad is conquered by the Habsburg Empire. In 1834 Arad gains its independence, while between 1867 and 1918 it is a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Arad got under the jurisdiction of the Romanian Government on 17 May 1918, with the penetration of the Romanian army into the city. The Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga, during his documentary journey from 1906, compares the city of Arad with Vienna, this being a confirmation of its economic upswing. In 1870 Arad is the most densely populated city in Transylvania, with a population of 32.000 inhabitants.
As a result of the economic boom, important objectives emerged, like: the clothing factory (1867), the gas factory (1868), the factory of brick and tiles (1869) and the furniture factory (1878). The furniture factory, which was founded in 1890 by Laurenţiu and Lengyel, became starting from 1910 one of the most renowned factories from Europe. Ioan Weitzer's factory of locomotives and wagons was founded in 1892, while the Marta factory, established in the same year, produced engines and machines in 1909. Lately, the Astra Wagons Company aimed at merging these two factories, in order to produce airplanes.
The knit-ware factory called "The Red Shirt" was built in 1918. In that period transportation also flourished. Arad lived a continuous ascension after the Great Union, occupying the fourth position in Romania with over 4000 registered companies at the Chamber of Commerce. In 1949 the industrial unit Aris was established through the merging of six factories. New industrial branches arose, together with the related structures, like: the toy factory (1959), the watch factory (1960) and the chemical combined group of enterprises (1971).
Arad is situated at the western extremity of Transylvania, in the Highlands of Arad, to a distance of 30 km from Zarand Mountains, a part of the Western Carpathians.
Timoşoara to the South, Bihor to the North, Hungary to the West and the county of Hunedoara to the East.
46,18 km2
173.000 inhabitants
It is crossed by the river Mureş from the east toward west and includes in its perimeter, in the Pădurice area, a natural lake.
The Plain of Arad is located between the Zarandului Mountains and the river bed of the river Ier and that of the dead arm of the river Mureş, constituting an extension to the Plain "Câmpia Crişurilor", southward from the borderline of the localities Pancota, Caporal Alexa, Olari, Simand and Sânmartin, until the Valley of the river Mureş between Paulis and Pecica. Toward the mountainous frame it has altitudes of almost 120 m, while in the western part hardly above 100 m. At the foot of the Zarandului Mountains a piemont plain is distinguishable, which does not reach the river Mureş, but gradually transforms into a lower platform (hardly above 100 m), having the characteristics of the digression plain from Curtici. As a result of the extension of the alluvial cone of the river Mureş, the Plain of Arad is made of gravel, sands and clay. Eastward from Arad  loess and loess deposits, while in the region of Curtici the eolian sands, with a relief of fixed dunes emerge. Inside the digression plain the deserted river beds and meanders, sand banks, swamps and  salty soils are frequent.
The climate of the city is moderate-continental, with light Mediterranean influences, the average temperature in summer being of 21°C and in winter -1°C.
It is crossed by the river Mureş from the east to the west.
The Codru-Moma Mountains are considered to be among the most interesting tourist areas from the Apuseni Mountains, thanks to the landscapes that are outstanding through their beauty and spectacular nature: steep slopes of hundreds of metres, vast leafy forests.
The Bats' Cave near Moneasa, enchantingly decorated with stalactites and stalagmites of all sizes. Hear originates the creek that flows beside the old treatment centre of the Moneasa resort.
The Cave of the Crystals is made of black limestone rock.
The Tauţ Lake (situated in the centre of the county of Arad, to 20 km from Ineu and about 55 km from the city) is located at the foot of the Apuseni Mountains, in the mountainous area of the Land of Zarand, on of the most renowned ethnographic regions from Romania. The surrounding area is well-known for its vast forest areas, that totalise more than 10.000 ha. The fish fauna is made up mainly of peaceful fish, and some predatory fish. The Dart fish and the Redfin Perch are also well represented, in large numbers and beautiful specimens.
The Teuz Lake (Bocsig, The County of Arad), is situated in the Hills of Cuied, on the Dâmbuţ Hill (198 m high) and the river Potoc.
Other lakes: the Ineu Lake (Ineu, the county of Arad), the Seleuş Lake (Seleuş, the county of Arad), the Rovina Lake (Ineu, the county of Arad).
Reservations and Natural Monuments:
Bezdin, near Pecica, a complex reservation with an area of 25 ha, it is a great attraction thanks to the white water lilly, that grows here.
Dendrological Parks: Periş, with oaks, that are older than 600 years, Săvârşin, Macea.
Historical Vestiges:
The Fortress of Arad was built on the left bank of the river Mureş on the request of the empress Maria Theresa. The construction work lasted 20 years (1763-1783). In July, 1919 the Romanian Army overtook the fortress. In the future the fortress will become a museum complex.
Other historical vestiges: The Stone Fortress (Siria 1331), The Şoimuş stone fortress (Lipova 1278), the Bohuş Castle (Bohus), the Săvârşin Castle (Săvârşin 1870) the Agriş Castle (Agriş 1400).
Religious Buildings:
The Hodoş-Bodrog Monastery from Bodrogul Nou was built in 1177. It is one of the oldest monuments of this type from Romania. One can find valuable paintings, numerous manuscripts and many other museum pieces here.
The Serbian Church of Arad was built in 1698 in a baroque style.
The "St. Florian" Chapel is located in the city and was built in 1752.
Other religious buildings: Wooden Churches situated in Buceava, Groşii Noi, Hălmagiu, Săvârşin, the Orthodox Church of voivodes from Hălmagiu, from the 14th Century, the Orthodox Church from Lipova, from the 14th Century.
Other tourist attractions:
The Administrative Palace
It was built between 1872 and 1874 according to a project of the architect Francisc Pekar. From a architectural point of view, the palace combines the Flemish neorenaissance style with the style of the town-halls from the Late Middle Ages. The building hosts the City Hall, the Prefecture and the County Council.
The Culture Palace
It was built between 1911 and 1913 according to the plans of the architect Ludovic Szantay, at the initiative of the Kolecsey cultural society. From an architectural point of view, the building is a combination of several styles: Classical, Italian Renaissance, French Gothic, French Baroque and Romanesque.
The Old Water Tower
The tower was built in 1896, while in 1927 it was restored. The main reason for its construction was to provide the drinking water supply for Arad. The tower is 25 metres high, has the aspect of a fortification and distinguishes itself thanks to the decoration of its windows and balconies.
The Neptun Lido
It is situated on an area of more than 20 ha of greenbelt and comprises swimming pools, sports fields, playgrounds for children, clubs, discos, more than 1500 cabins and 300 camping houses.
The Cliff of the River Mureş
It is  the place where there are: the Children's Park, the Eminescu Park, the Europe Park  and where the festivities with the occasion of Europe's Day take place, sport fields, playgrounds for children.
The Thicket
It is located near the Podgorie Square. At the end o the 19th Century the greenbelt was much wider, the natural lake that is situated here was surrounded by a small
The Ceala Forest
It is situated to a distance of 2 km from Arad, on an area of 1560 ha, and it is one of the favourite places of the inhabitants of Arad for spending their free time. Here is also the Moltaret Lake. An especially pitoresque place is the Island of the Mureş at the southern end of the forest. On the island, formed by the main river bed of the river Mureş and a sidearm, there is a large number of holiday houses and cottages.
The monument of the Romanian Soldiers
Built in memory of those who gave their lives for the liberation from under the fascist domination.
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